Coffee is among the most loved drinks of all time but not just for its aromatic fumes but also for its incredibly innumerable benefits. Coffee is known to reduce the risks of anyone ever getting gallstones. As a matter of fact, it is a drink that is proven by science to keep your gallbladder healthy. Care to know more? Let’s read more!
Of the many good things that coffee is known for, here is another reason to love coffee: it can help you avoid gallstones! Yes, this is based on a recent study in Denmark conducted by Dr. A. Tybjaerg-Hansen and her team and the result was published by The Journal of Internal Medicine on September 5th 2019.
Based on the journal, the methodology of the study is as follows:
“First, we tested whether high coffee intake was associated with low risk of gallstone disease in 104,493 individuals from the general population,” they explained.
“Secondly, we tested whether two genetic variants near CYP1A1/A2 (rs2472297) and AHR (rs4410790) genes, combined as an allele score, were associated with higher coffee intake measured as a continuous variable.”
“Thirdly, we tested whether the allele score was associated with a lower risk of gallstone disease in 114,220 individuals, including 7,294 gallstone events.”
According to the results of the study, people who drink more than 6 cups of the precious brown liquid per day saw their gallstone risk drop by 23%. For those who consumed 3 to 6 cups daily, the risk is reduced by 17%, while study participants who drank just one cup of coffee a day saw the risk of gallstones reduced by about 3%. The study tracked more than a hundred thousand Danes over 8 years and came up with this conclusion.
A genetic technique called Mendelian randomization was used by taking advantage of the randomized distribution of genetic variants in the population. The researchers found that for each additional cup of coffee per day, there is an 11% reduction in gallstone risk for people with two genetic variants known to be associated with caffeine intake. By using Mendelian randomization, a natural randomized study was created and made it more likely that the association is causal. According to the senior author of the study, there is a direct relationship between the increase in obese clients and the incidence and problems with gallstones.
Gallstones are hard, pebble-like material that builds up in the gall bladder. These formed materials can be dangerous because it may lead to a blockage in the bile ducts, and if so, may need surgery to remove them. This is the treatment of choice. But how does coffee diminish the risk of forming gallstones? Dr. Tybjaerg-Hansen has noted that because caffeine is excreted via the bile, it’s possible that it reduces the amount of cholesterol found in the bile. Since gallstones are made up of cholesterol and bile acids, a decrease in cholesterol means a lower possibility of forming gallstones. To put it simply, gallstones can not be formed if the balance between cholesterol and bile acids has been disrupted.
When asked whether caffeine is primarily responsible for this desirable effect, the author said “yes, that is a possibility” while adding that whatever’s behind coffee’s power, she believes that the research team’s subsequent genetic analyses indicate that it’s coffee itself – rather than the coffee drinkers’ lifestyle factors – that is at play.
The author added that, for now, this is only a speculation; further research to prove the uncovered correlations in this study should be undertaken. Nevertheless, the 8-year period dedicated to tracking more than a hundred thousand Danes, and the observed effect of coffee to gallstone formation is already a good lead for future research.
A.T. Nordestgaard, a colleague of the author and also a part of the research conducted, said that the recent research showed that coffee intake is associated with multiple variables known to be associated with risk of gallstone disease. These variables are potential confounders for the association between coffee intake and symptomatic gallstone disease (GSD). In addition, symptoms of gallstones such as colicky pain could, in theory, reduce individual coffee intake because coffee stimulates cholecystokinin release, increases gallbladder motility, and possibly enhances large bowel motility. This phenomenon in observational epidemiology is known as ‘reverse causation.’ It is, therefore, unclear whether the observed association between coffee intake and gallstone disease is causal.
The differences between the new findings and previous ones that explored the link between coffee and symptomatic gallstone disease are likely attributable to differences in sample sizes, designs, and study populations, according to researchers. But then again, future research can use this recently conducted study in Denmark as a springboard.
There seems to be a little bit of complication when it comes to including or excluding coffee for your health.
Since no two persons are the same, not everyone will have the same response to various levels of caffeine intake.
While some might require it simply to start the day, others will start feeling jittery, or start experiencing fast heartbeat. Others would even feel anxious or slightly depressed.
No 2 mugs of coffee are alike either, since there are many variables that affect the taste, quality and amount of caffeine in your coffee.
Don’t think that coffee is all bad, that’s a misconception. In fact, coffee has been proven to aid you shed fat, lower your risk of getting type II diabetics, protect you from Alzheimer’s, Dementia, and even Parkinson’s.
On the other hand, coffee also has its adverse side effects. Coffee can irritate your digestive tract and this can lead to ulcers, IBS and other gastrointestinal diseases. cause abscess, IBS, increase your acidity degree as well as aggravate the digestive tract. Caffeine in coffee is also highly addictive leading to increased levels of stress, imbalanced hormones.
When it concerns seeing to it your coffee as wellness pleasant as feasible, acidity needs to be considered as an aspect.
Your pH level is the dimension given to identify the level of acidity and alkalinity of the body. When the body becomes extremely acidic, the physiologic task in your body is affected including your metabolism as well as overall condition.
Coffee adds to your body’s acidity rate. On the pH range, coffee falls at around 5.0, where foods that are useful to wellness fall at around 7.4.
While alkaline coffee has yet to be discovered, there is a trick based out of the Middle East that can help in reducing its level of acidity level.
By including cardamom to coffee, you can actually neutralize it. Cardamom aids with digestion, detoxing, high blood pressure, and also has anti-inflammatory properties. Just add a pinch or two to a 12-ounce mug of coffee. It will boost the flavor of your coffee and even add its helpful healing properties.
Turkish coffee is widely popular because of abundant and delicious taste. The secret active ingredient to this cup of happiness is cardamom. Try to do it yourself to completely appreciate the taste and also wellness of cardamom-infused coffee.
To make Cardamom coffee you will certainly require the following:
To make the coffee, you will certainly need an ibrik (a Turkish coffee pot) if you have one or a pan.
Trying to lose weight just for the sake of shedding off some heavy pounds or trying to lose weight just for the purpose of health through dieting results in many food restrictions. One of the most common ways people try to lose weight is through intermittent fasting. But how far should we go when we fast? Are we restricted in drinking coffee too? While intermittent fasting coffee drinking may or may not be a restriction. Not sure? Let’s find out.
Let’s go directly to the point. Intermittent fasting coffee combo, can I drink it?
You’re allowed to have coffee during the hours when you’re fasting…but there’s a catch.
You can drink coffee while you are fasting for as long as its black. Pure natural brewed coffee is not going to mess up your diet at all, but in fact, may even add-in to your source of strength and antioxidants. However, before we go further, what exactly is intermittent fasting? Why is it such a hype?
Based on the name itself, you enter regulated, alternating cycles of eating and fasting. It’s a growing trend that allows women to lose weight and even stay healthier.
Women and men are very particular about entering an easier way to lose weight without sacrificing much of our preferred meals. Moreover, intermittent fasting seems to be a quick solution. That’s because you are not limited to what you eat and how much calories you’re going to take. But rather, you are only setting a specific time on WHEN you’re going to eat.
Intermittent fasting also has one perk; it’s very easy to do. It’s just a matter of controlling your urges to eat. When we sleep, we are already fasting. And this type of diet is simply extending that fast. You set hours where you’re going to eat and set limitations on the time you’re going to eat.
One of the most popular ways of intermittent fasting is the 16/8 method. You fast for 16 hours and have an eating window of eight hours. One of the most common ways you can implement this is by skipping breakfast and start eating at around noon. Your last meal is also set at 8 P.M. You can consume any food you want within your eating window but it also sets restrictions like limiting the amount of food you eat every time.
This is hailed as the magic number for IF, but little research supports this claim. However, many believe in the power of IF and swear by the 16/8 as a magic recipe in losing weight. On a keto perspective, IF is a good start to getting your body used to the change in your diet. Keto is very strict when it comes to the percentage or what type of food you eat. And this percentage affects your state of ketosis. There is no actual magic in IF, but it is one method where we put ourselves in a state where our body does not process any food or carbohydrates from the food we eat but instead burn down our fats.
Fasting literally means not taking any form of food in our body. Food involves any type of meal or drink that has sweets, calories, and other types of additives that your body will process like food. So the only thing you can take during your fast is zero-calorie, zero-fat, and zero-sugar. And luckily, three of our favorite drinks fall under that category: water, tea, and coffee.
BUT there’s a catch. Coffee and tea are only zero-fat and sugar if it doesn’t have any additives in it like sugar, creamer, milk, or other flavorings. So, when intermittent fasting coffee is only good when black.
Coffee is technically gold for IF because it is rich in antioxidants. Plus it also helps in speeding up your metabolism. Coffee is a wonder drink that is full of minerals that your body needs. And when you’re fasting, your body absorbs more of these benefits than you can imagine.
When you think about it, black coffee is like drinking flavored water. But if you brew your coffee just right, you hit not just the satisfaction of your noses but also the full benefit of enjoying a drink while you’re trying to hold out on eating. Pure black coffee is also a good drink to take when you’re trying not to screw up your weight loss regimen.
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the U.S. Drinking coffee every day is great but we have to know our limitations. Coffee is a known detoxifier and it is one of the best and easiest access we have to keeping our bodies clean. But did you know that having too much coffee can affect your overall health too?
Coffee Detox: Why You Should Take A Break From Sipping That Cup
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the U.S. Many people enjoy this drink either hot or cold as part of their daily routine or at times when they need extra energy and improved focus.
One study found that the number of coffee drinkers in the country significantly increased between 2012 and 2018. Researchers said that 64 percent of Americans aged 18 or over had a cup of coffee in the past year.
It offers a number of health benefits, which encourage more people to add the beverage to their diets. Coffee has been linked to lower risk of having liver disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes.
However, being a coffee addict may lead to some health problems. Experts warned that too much caffeine in the body can contribute to some conditions affecting both physical and mental health.
An individual should consume no more than 400 milligrams of coffee per day, according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). High levels of caffeine may affect neurotransmitters in the brain, which can cause nausea, jitters, anxiety and headaches, among other problems.
Coffee detox may help block the potential side effects of coffee. Avoiding caffeine for a few days could provide a number of benefits and promote better health.
Caffeine can boost energy levels and alertness. However, reducing consumption can help promote better sleep and give you more energy to manage your responsibilities the next day.
Caffeine can stay in the blood for up to five hours. Drinking coffee in the afternoon may still keep you up at night and even during bedtime, according to DrAxe.com.
Less or no coffee during the day can help reduce yellowing of the teeth and maintain tooth enamel. High amounts of coffee have been linked to thin and brittle teeth.
The bad effects of coffee commonly happen after high consumption. After increasing focus, it may later lead to nervousness, stress, anxiety and “caffeine jitters,” or reduced concentration.
Coffee may also cause poor sleep quality, which also affects mood. Coffee detox may help you stay more calm during the day.
Reduce your consumption dramatically within five days. Start by drinking only one cup, trying alternatives, such as tea or decaf, and by completely removing coffee from your daily routine.
We all know that coffee is good for your health. But who knew that drinking coffee can help your gallbladder? If people knew this earlier they wouldn’t have had a surgery to take gallstones out, don’t you think? Many researches backs coffee with tons of health benefits but read this amazing info about how coffee does wonders to you tiny but significant body organ.
In a new study, researchers found drinking more coffee may help reduce the risk of developing gallstones.
The research was conducted by a team from Copenhagen University and other institutes.
Gallstones are solid particles that form from bile cholesterol and bilirubin in the gallbladder.
The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped saclike organ in the upper right part of the abdomen. It is located under the liver, just below the front rib cage on the right side.
Gallstones can be any size, from tiny as a grain of sand to large as a golf ball.
Gallstones within the gallbladder often cause no problems. If there are many or they are large, they may cause pain when the gallbladder responds to a fatty meal.
They also may cause problems if they block bile from leaving the gallbladder or move out of the gallbladder and block the bile duct.
In the study, the team examined 104,493 individuals.
They found those who drank more than six cups of coffee per day had a 23% lower risk of developing symptomatic gallstones compared with people who did not drink coffee.
Drinking one extra cup of coffee per day was associated with a 3% lower risk.
Also, individuals with certain genetic variants that have been linked to increased coffee consumption had a lower risk of gallstones.
Also, individuals with certain genetic variants that have been linked to increased coffee consumption had a lower risk of gallstones.
Although the study only uncovered correlations, the authors highlighted several mechanisms by which coffee consumption might help prevent gallstones from forming.
The lead author of the study is A. T. Nordestgaard from Copenhagen University Hospital
The study is published in the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Copyright © 2019 Knowridge Science Report. All rights reserved.
Coffee culture is at its peak today than in any other century in the world. With the abundance of great cafes in every city or town, we have access to an unlimited supply of a good cup of joe. But from one cup to eight cups a day, sometimes, we can barely restrict ourselves from getting quite a lot of coffee in a day. So, how much exactly is too much coffee?
Many of us love coffee—whether it’s for the flavor, the smell or the pick-me-up. With a popular coffee culture (an estimated 64 percent of Americans drinks a cup of joe daily) and abundant cafes, it’s easy to rack up more than a few cups (25 for some!) by the end of the day. Naturally, this begs the question: how much is too much?
Over the years, a slew of studies has been giving mixed messages about the healthy amount and effects. Some studies suggest coffee consumption can help reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and certain cancers plus boosts brain health and metabolism,” while others emphasize that too much can lead to heart disease and migraines. As for the amount, just these past five months, there are studies with drastically different figures.
In March, Dr. Elina Hyppönen and Dr. Ang Zhou of the Australian Centre for Precision Health at the University of Southern Australia shared their findings on the maximum daily coffee intake that doesn’t harm cardiovascular health. After analyzing dietary patterns and health records of 346,077 individuals aged 37 to 73 years from the UK Biobank data, the number they discovered is five. According to the study, by the time you drink six cups of coffee or more per day, your risk of heart disease can rise to 22 percent.
On June 3, a study presented at the British Cardiovascular Society conference by the Queen Mary University of London offers a different number. While the average intake among the highest consumption group in this study is five cups per day, but after giving 8,412 participants MRI heart scans and infrared pulse wave tests, scientists discovered that “even those who drank up to 25 cups a day were no more likely to experience stiffening of the arteries than someone drinking less than a cup a day.”
As the scientist who led the data analysis at the Queen Mary University of London, Kenneth Fung told CNN that the study by no means encourages people to drink 25 cups a day. Instead, “the main message for people to take away from this is that coffee can be enjoyed as part of a healthy lifestyle, and coffee lovers can be reassured by this result in terms of blood vessel stiffness outcomes,” he said.
When it comes to making sense of different research, Dr. Donald Hensrud—Director of the Mayo Clinic Healthy Living Program and Medical Editor of the Mayo Clinic Diet—suggests that “one study [won’t] change the whole amount of research that has been done up until now.” It’s essential to assess the entire body of research over the years, which have pointed to coffee intake’s effect on decreasing risks of Type 2 Diabetes, Parkinson’s disease and overall mortality. While excess caffeine is a proven risk for women who are pregnant or trying to get pregnant, the general health benefits of coffee are relatively evident.
Instead, pay more attention to the side effects such as heartburn, acid reflux, urinary issues (especially among men), insomnia and heart palpitations. Those are the more significant, earlier telltale signs for when coffee drinkers should cut down. Also, limit sugar and cream, and avoid flavored coffees from chains (which has 500 calories or more) if you want to “keep overall calorie intake down,” said Hensrud.
Like many things, “moderation is key—usually five to six cups a day is a practical and reasonable limit as long as someone doesn’t experience side effects.” As for those in serious need to lower coffee intake, Hensrud recommends taking it slowly. “Don’t go cold turkey.” Let the caffeine addiction taper off over time (reducing a cup every few days), so you won’t experience too many withdrawal symptoms.
In the busy corporate hamster wheel that we are all running in, wouldn’t you like to kick start your day not just to a caffeine boost but a healthy dose of vitamins as well? Vitamin Coffee is a real innovation that finds its roots in Reno and is starting to gain attention as a healthy drink for those who are too busy to take care of themselves. Wouldn’t you care for a try?
Taglined as “coffee beyond caffeine,” Vitamin Coffee is a natural health enhancer that allows you to drink your vitamins. Using the west coast’s largest sublimation unit, best described as a giant vacuum chamber, Nutrient uses all-natural, 100 percent Colombian Arabica coffee and packs each product with 13 essential vitamins in each serving. Vitamin Coffee is ready in seconds, served either hot and cold, and is perfect for anyone who needs a little extra help getting their daily performance-enhancing nutrients.
“People of all lifestyles drink coffee –– from the busy office associate to the relaxed camping enthusiast,” said Dana Beck, Chief Operating Officer. “What if drinking two cups of coffee per day gave you all of the daily vitamins you need to not only stay alert but also perform at your best? That’s where Vitamin Coffee comes in.”.
Nutrient uses precision manufacturing and individual ingredient dosing to ensure their products contain accurate and consistent nutrient ratios. Inside the company’s 100,000 square foot warehouse, food scientists eliminate much of the nutrient degradation that takes place in many cooked foods by avoiding temperatures higher than 180 degrees Fahrenheit.
As a “functional drink” providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, Vitamin Coffee naturally supports sustained energy, muscle repair, bone health, better moods, heart health and a strong immune system. Vitamin Coffee is portable and can be taken anywhere, even off the grid.
For more information on Vitamin Coffee, visit https://nutrientfoods.com/pages/nutrient-coffee.
About Nutrient Foods:
Nutrient Foods is a functional food and beverage company that is owned and operated right in Reno, Nevada. We make it easy and simple to boost your body’s natural power to achieve extraordinary levels of performance and health by providing your body with essential nutrients that are often missing from today’s American diet. Our proprietary technology is founded on two scientific principles: nutrient density and anti-inflammation. For more information about our company and products, visit nutrientfoods.com.
Wasn’t it a struggle to go on a strict diet for months and maintain a good routine just to shed those pounds? Now that you’ve finally achieved your goal weight, isn’t it twice as hard to maintain your weight? Get your weight and health in check with three to four cups of black coffee! Know how coffee can help keep your weight gain under control and your heart, your liver, and your weight will thank you for it!
But coffee is no joke. This beloved pick-me-up (Americans drink 400 million cups a day!) has many benefits. The newest seems to be in the battle of the bulge. Researchers recently published a study in Scientific Reports that looked at coffee’s effect on cells in a dish and on humans. They found that some component(s) of caffeinated coffee help turn energy-storing white fat into energy-burning brown fat. That leads to improved blood sugar control, lower levels of lousy LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, and burning of extra calories to promote weight loss.
Add that to the other recognized benefits of coffee and you’ve got a cuppa goodness — if you don’t load it up with sugar-added flavorings and full-fat dairy.
Three to four cups of black coffee (or with soy or almond milk) a day has been found to increase longevity, and some studies show that it can reduce the risk of heart attack, heart failure and stroke, Type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, uterine and liver cancer, cirrhosis and gout.
For you decaf or half- caf folks (8 ounces of decaffeinated coffee can contain 2-15 milligrams of caffeine; regular coffee has 80-100 milligrams), there are still recognized benefits to your heart, brain and liver from two to four cups daily.
Mehmet Oz, M.D., is host of “The Dr. Oz Show,” and Mike Roizen, M.D., is chief wellness officer and chairman of the Wellness Institute at the Cleveland Clinic. Email questions to [email protected]
Try to take the coffee away from someone and see what happens. A few months ago, a story about a pregnant woman who was shamed by a Starbucks barista for ordering a cup of coffee went viral. The caffeine-shaming continues: Mom-to-be Jaclene Paolucci had a similar experience at her local Starbucks in New York last week. In the meantime we just reported yesterday about a study on caffeine on pregnant women. However, one cup of coffee is absolutely safe for anyone, pregnant or not.
A Pregnant Woman Responded to a Stranger Who Shamed Her for Drinking Coffee in the Best Way
A few months ago, a story about a pregnant woman who was shamed by a Starbucks barista for ordering a cup of coffee went viral. Sadly, the caffeine-shaming continues: Mom-to-be Jaclene Paolucci had a similar experience at her local Starbucks in New York last week.
Paolucci, who is 6 months pregnant, stopped in for a latte, but was met with unsolicited advice instead. She tweeted about her experience, writing that after placing her order, a stranger told her she should be drinking decaf during pregnancy.
The expectant mother’s witty response? “I’m not pregnant.”
The stranger was horrified, and immediately started apologizing, according to Paolucci.
“And that’s what you get for giving unsolicited advice,” she wrote.
(I am 6 months pregnant)
Me after ordering my coffee:
Stranger at Starbucks: you know you should be drinking decaf when you’re pregnant.
Me: I’m… not pregnant.
Stranger: (horrified) I am so, so sorry!
And that’s what you get for giving unsolicited advice.
“I’ve discovered that if you want unsolicited advice, then you should get pregnant,” Paolucci told BBC News in an interview.
Paolucci’s tweet — which currently has over 78,000 retweets and 708,000 likes — has turned into a thread for many other moms to share similar experiences they had during their pregnancies.
“Once told a nosy colleague who said I shouldn’t be drinking coffee that he shouldn’t be practicing medicine without a license, but here we both were,” one Twitter user replied.
“Isn’t it amazing how you become everyone’s property when you are preggers?” another person chimed in.
Even an OB-GYN responded: “To every person who commented or gave me unsolicited ‘advice’ during pregnancy: Excuse me, are you a board-certified high risk obstetrician? Well I am, so…”
Clearly, Paolucci isn’t alone in receiving unwanted advice and judgment for wanting to enjoy a cup of coffee during pregnancy. And while there’s still a lot of confusion about what you should and shouldn’t drink when you’re expecting, experts say that moderate caffeine consumption is perfectly fine when pregnant.
According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), enjoying two small cups of coffee or one 12-ounce cup daily (about 200 milligrams of caffeine a day) does not seem to be linked to miscarriage or preterm birth. For context, a tall macchiato from Starbucks contains between 150 to 170 milligrams of caffeine. However, heavier caffeine consumption (think five to six cups of Joe a day, or a specialty drink filled with espresso shots) may slightly increase risk of miscarriage.
Of course, it’s always a good idea to talk to your doctor about your daily caffeine intake. Don’t be afraid to run any questions by her if you’re unsure about what’s best for you to eat and drink, and what you should avoid while you’re expecting.
We love coffee and we think of it as the magical potion that fixes all of our day to day problems. And we are right to worship coffee, at the end of the day, it makes the world revolve. However, during pregnancy you need to cut on caffeine, from coffee or from any other caffeinated beverage. No matter how tired you get during your pregnancy , a new study suggests that too much caffeine consumption during your pregnancy might harm your baby. On an animal study, female rats that were given caffeine during pregnancy had offspring with lower birth weights, altered growth and stress hormone levels, and impaired liver development.
THURSDAY, Aug. 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) — No matter how tired you get during your pregnancy, a new animal study suggests that countering your fatigue with too much coffee might harm your baby.
Female rats that were given caffeine during pregnancy had offspring with lower birth weights, altered growth and stress hormone levels, and impaired liver development.
How much coffee is too much?
The findings suggest that in pregnant women, consuming an amount of caffeine equivalent to 2 to 3 cups of coffee a day may change stress and growth hormone levels in a way that can impair infants’ liver growth and development. It may also increase their risk of liver disease in adulthood.
“Our work suggests that prenatal caffeine is not good for babies and although these findings still need to be confirmed in people, I would recommend that women avoid caffeine during pregnancy,” said study co-author Yinxian Wen, from Wuhan University in China.
The study was published recently in the Journal of Endocrinology.
Previous studies have indicated that consuming 2 to 3 cups coffee a day during pregnancy can result in lower infant birth weight.
Animal studies have also suggested that caffeine consumption during pregnancy may have long-term harmful effects on liver development leading to increased susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a serious condition normally associated with obesity and diabetes.
While this study in rats provides new insight, the findings need to be confirmed in humans.
Rats in the study that were exposed to caffeine in the womb had lower levels of the liver hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and higher levels of the stress hormone corticosteroid at birth.
These rats also had a “catch-up” phase of liver development after birth, characterized by increased levels of IGF-1.
“Our results indicate that prenatal caffeine causes an excess of stress hormone activity in the mother, which inhibits IGF-1 activity for liver development before birth,” Wen said in a journal news release.
“However, compensatory mechanisms do occur after birth to accelerate growth and restore normal liver function, as IGF-1 activity increases and stress hormone signaling decreases,” Wen said. “The increased risk of fatty liver disease caused by prenatal caffeine exposure is most likely a consequence of this enhanced, compensatory postnatal IGF-1 activity.”